Known About Fluoride
Upper Intake Level
Interferes with Brain
Needs to Be Known
Bogus Sales Pitch
Memes to Use
Fluoridated Amniotic Fluid
Fluoride's antibacterial effects in the fetal GI tract
may affect neurological and immunological development.
Contaminating Our Most Precious Bodily Fluid
When a baby in the womb swallows fluoride in amniotic fluid (up to 15 oz per day), this not only increases fluoride levels in it's bloodstream, but fluoride's antibacterial effects are a serious concern for the developing microbiome: by disrupting colonization and composition of bacteria in the fetal GI tract.
Fluoride Weakens Bacterial Adhesion Forces
In 2013, a key antimicrobial mechanism of fluoride was identified by researchers in experimental physics at Saarland University in Germany. Using artificial tooth surfaces (hydroxyapatite pellets), they tested fluoride's effect on the adhesion forces of cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis) and a non-pathogenic bacterium (Staphylococcus carnosus).
After exposure to fluoride, atomic force microscopy revealed that all three bacteria species exhibited lower adhesion forces. Because fluoride makes bacteria less able to stick to teeth, decay-causing microorganisms are more easily washed away by saliva or brushing. The researchers said, "Fluoride appears to weaken bacterial adhesion forces in general."
Loskill P, Zeitz C, Grandthyll S, et al. Reduced adhesion of oral bacteria on hydroxyapatite by fluoride treatment. Langmuir. 2013 May 7;29(18):5528-33.
Weiss J. After 50 years scientists gain clues how fluoride actually protects teeth. Medical Daily. May 1, 2013.
As explored in Pregnancy and Fluoride Do Not Mix (read excerpt), weakened bacterial adhesion forces may affect the colonization and composition of bacteria in the fetal GI tract, and consequently, neurological and immunological development.
In fact, a primary reason why pregnant women are encouraged to consume fluoridated water is to help "delay colonisation of the infant oral cavity by cariogenic bacteria," as noted by New Zealand's Chief Science Advisor in his 2014 review discussed here:
"Half the truth is often a great lie." Benjamin Franklin
Half the truth: "The effect of maternal intake on fluoride concentration in the amniotic fluid and fetal blood does not vary between intakes of 0.25 and 1.0 mg/day." New Zealand's Chief Science Advisor
Health Effects of Water Fluoridation: a Review of the Scientific Evidence. A report on behalf of the Royal Society of New Zealand and the Office of the Prime Minister's Chief Science Advisor [Sir Peter Gluckman]. August 2014. Page 29/Reference 57.**
This is a great lie, because the other half of the truth in Reference 57 was omitted: The fluoride concentration in amniotic fluid was significantly higher when maternal fluoride intake was 1.25 mg/day.
Right after recommending pregnant women consume 3 mg of fluoride per day (page 29), the Chief Science Advisor fails to mention that women who consumed less than half that amount had significantly higher levels of fluoride in their amniotic fluid.
Brambilla, E., et al., Oral administration of fluoride in pregnant women, and the relation between concentration in maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid. Arch Oral Biol, 1994. 39(11): p. 991994.
Abstract: The aim was to measure the ionic fluoride concentration in maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid after oral administration of different doses of sodium fluoride (NaF) to 121 pregnant women. They were divided into six groups, according to the dose administered; 0 for the control group and 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 or 1.25 mg of F- for the others. The subjects were instructed to take the corresponding NaF dose both 24 and 3 h before amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid (5 ml) and venous blood (5 ml) were obtained from each subject. Ionic fluoride concentration was measured with an expanded-scale potentiometer and a selective fluoride electrode.
The results showed that F- concentration in amniotic fluid and, presumably, in fetal circulation, was not significantly different in groups taking 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 mg/day of F-. The F- concentration in amniotic fluid of the 1.25 mg/day group was, however, significantly higher than in all the other groups.
The New Zealand reviewers also distorted data when they claimed: "The effect of maternal intake on fluoride concentration in... fetal blood does not vary between intakes of 0.25 and 1.0 mg/day."
In contrast, Brambilla et. al said: "Fluoride concentration in amniotic fluid and, presumably, in fetal circulation, was not significantly different in groups taking 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 mg/day of fluoride."
The reviewers' contradict themselves earlier in the same paragraph: "Fluoride levels in cord blood reach, on average, 87% (~60-90%) of those in maternal blood."
It is also contradicted by respected sources the New Zealand reviewers cited several times:
Even more troubling: Research shows that fluoride levels in fetal blood can be more than twice as high as cord blood and 25% higher than maternal levels (Shimonovitz et al. 1995). This can happen because fetal swallowing of fluoride in amniotic fluid is absorbed into fetal circulation, as alcohol is (Burd et al. 2012; Brien et al. 1983) as discussed in:
Pregnancy and Fluoride Do Not Mix, pages 54-55:
Fetuses Exceed Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Fluoride