The CDC's Tolerable Upper Intake Level
The CDC's safety threshold for fluoride intake was determined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 1997). For children under 9 years old, their "Tolerable Upper Intake Level" (UL) of fluoride is 0.10 mg/kg per day.
What about children in the womb? The IOM did not estimate a fetal UL, but said it would be "significantly lower" because "sensitivity increases due to active placental transfer, accumulation of certain nutrients in the amniotic fluid, rapid development of the brain."
Fluoride intake levels must now be determined for children in the womb. Since ULs were established in 1997, the EPA's Neurotoxicology Division has found substantial and increasing evidence that fluoride is a developmental neurotoxicant in the same category with lead and alcohol. "It is apparent that fluorides have the ability to interfere with the functions of the brain and the body by direct and indirect means."
And last year a major study (Bashash et al. 2017) funded by the National Institutes of Health confirmed that higher levels of fluoride in pregnant women are associated with lower IQs in their children. The 12-year study was conducted largely by specialists in the field who did similar studies on other neurotoxicants.
In March 2018, the authors further concluded:
"Our findings add to our team's recently published report on prenatal fluoride and cognition at ages 4 and 6-12 years by suggesting that higher in utero exposure to fluoride has an adverse impact on offspring cognitive development that can be detected earlier, in the first three years of life.
In light of of this new evidence, telling pregnant women to consume
fluoride in water or in supplements is a human rights violation.
Worse, it is human experimentation.
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels of Fluoride are
Based on Developmental Defects in Teeth, Not the Brain
In 1997, the Institute of Medicine selected "moderate enamel fluorosis" as the critical adverse effect for infants and children: "This is regarded as a cosmetic effect rather than a functional adverse effect." (IOM 2000, Table 6-1.)
In other words, if you look into a kid's mouth and can see that fluoride has only mildly damaged the hardest substance in the body, then her brain has nothing to worry about.
Saying dental fluorosis is the critical adverse effect of swallowing fluoride all day, is like tobacco promoters claiming that the only problem of smoking a pack of cigarettes a day is the yellowing of your teeth. Hey, it's just cosmetic. Your denti$t can fix that.
The IOM did not consider the fetal brain, despite the fact that defects in tooth enamel have been correlated with impaired brain development. (See Developmental Defects Increase with Fluoride Levels in Water in Pregnancy and Fluoride Do Not Mix.)
'Health' authorities need to pull their head out of the 20th century.
Stop discriminating against and overdosing children in the womb.
The words fetus or fetal are not mentioned in any of the seven pages cited in the CDC's main fluoridation page. The only mention of pregnancy: "Use of fluoride supplements by pregnant women does not benefit their offspring."
The CDC has also failed to report the association between fluoridated water and premature birth, even though the agency has stated that preterm birth is "the leading cause of long-term neurological disabilities in children."